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Showing posts with label House keeping. Show all posts
Showing posts with label House keeping. Show all posts

Tuesday, November 10, 2020

How to Clean Lime Stains Off of Swimming Pool Tiles

Lime, calcium and hard water deposits tend to develop on tiles along the water line in even the cleanest of swimming pools. Scrubbing off these deposits is hard work, but it leaves the pool looking clean and inviting again. Lime deposits create a rough surface on your tiles to which algae can stick, and develop a slimy mess. Although the process to remove the lime stains is time consuming, it's not difficult. Drain the pool so the water falls at least 6 inches below the stain line. If you plan to stand in the pool while you scrub the tile, drain the water an additional 6 inches to keep the waves you generate from touching the stained tiles. Climb in the pool or lie down on the pool edge so you can reach the stained tiles. Apply an acidic gel pool tile cleaner onto a small area of the stained tile with a lint-free cloth; stick to an area you can reach without moving to a new position. Rub the tile with the cleaner. Allow the gel to sit on the area for about 15 minutes. Dip a large nylon brush in a bucket of clean water and scrub the gel-covered area with the brush using a circular motion. Don't dip the brush into the pool. Wipe away the gel using a damp rag. Rinse the rag in the bucket and wring it out well before continuing to wipe away more gel. Repeat the process around all edges of the pool. Allow the pool tile to dry, then examine it for lime stains. Some don't show up well when they're wet, but when they are dry, circle the remaining stains with a grease pencil or crayon. Apply gel and let it sit on the areas that are still stained. Scrub with a nylon brush and wipe the cleaner away with a damp rag. For stubborn stains that you can feel as well as see, scrape the tile with a razor blade tool or scrub it with a pumice stone after you apply the gel tile cleaner

Best steam cleaners 2020: The best for carpet, tiles, floors and more

Steam is a truly wonderful thing. It naturally removes stubborn stains and kills germs, all without having to resort to using harsh chemicals. So, whether you want to clean up those old windows, refresh your tiles or just keep a hard floor in tip-top condition, you need to find the best steam cleaner for the job. For convenience, we’ve listed all of our best steam cleaners in the list below, but keep reading this article to get the full low down on each product, or a link to to the full review. Best overall steam cleaner: Karcher SC5 easyFix Premium Steam Cleaner Best budget steam cleaner: Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E Best steam mop: Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop Best cylinder steam cleaner: Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner Best steam mop and handheld: Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 Best budget steam mop and handheld: Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop Best steam mop alternative: Karcher FC5 Hard Floor Cleaner Best budget handheld steam cleaner: Hoover Steam Express Unlike many other websites, we’ve actually gone out and reviewed loads of models from the top steam cleaner manufacturers, letting us compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of each model to bring you this definitive list. We’ve put together a list of nine steam cleaners, covering a wide range of budgets and uses. One of the best things about steam cleaners is that they are capable of disinfecting areas, using heat to destroy germs. As a result, they’re a great way to keep your home extra-clean, particularly in areas where harsh chemicals can’t be used. How we picked the best steam cleaners We test all steam cleaners under the same conditions. The key to any product like this is the quality of the cleaning, so: We test each steamer on a variety of surfaces. Depending on the attachments provided, and the steam cleaner’s purpose, we look at cleaning performance on carpets, hard floors, windows and kitchens or bathrooms. Outside of the cleaning quality, we ask how easy a steam cleaner is to use. All of our reviews thoroughly test the cleaners for usability, including how simple they are to refill, what it was like to use them in a variety of situations, and how easy it was to change attachments. We also look at home long each cleaner can last on a tank-full of water, giving an idea of the area that can be cleaned in one go. If you’re not sure where to start, we’ve got a steam cleaner buying guide at the bottom of the page to help you narrow your choice. Do I need a steam mop or a traditional steam cleaner? If you look at the range of products on sale, you’ll see that steam cleaners are available in two main types: traditional steam cleaners and steam mops. So, what’s the difference and which one do you need? Let’s start with steam mops. These are, as the name suggests, regular mops, only they use a water tank and heater to push steam down to the mop head. As you move the mop over the floor, the steam is used to loosen dirt, while the mop head (typically microfibre) picks up the dirt. It’s as simple as that and these products are designed to be used on hard floors to keep them clean with less hard graft than a traditional mop. And, steam mops will leave the floor less wet than a mop will, so you can clean with less water and walk on your fresh floors again. Traditional steam cleaners tend to come with a separate tank, with steam coming out of a nozzle attached to a hose. A range of accessories tends to ship with these devices to tackle different jobs: typical attachments include a upholstery attachment for furniture, a small nozzle for directing steam directly at grout and a window cleaning tool. Many traditional steam cleaners also come with a mop attachment, so that you can use them on hard floors, too. Traditional steam cleaners are typically more versatile than mops, but the trade-off is that they cost more. If you only really want to clean your hard floors, buy a steam mop; if you want to tackle more jobs buy a traditional steam cleaner and make sure it has the attachments that you need. Finally, it’s worth mentioning handheld steam cleaners. These are handheld devices, designed for cleaning much smaller areas, such as tiles or around bathrooms. If you get areas with stubborn marks, such as around tiles in a kitchen or bathroom, handheld cleaners are a good choice. With that out of the way, here’s our selection. 1. Karcher SC5 easyFix Premium Steam Cleaner Our favourite steam cleaner Yes, it’s expensive, but there’s a good reason for that: the Karcher SC5 easyFix Premium Steam Cleaner is the best cleaner that we’ve tested. With its near 2-litre capacity, 2kW+ heater and powerful VapoHydro mode, this is a steam cleaner that can handle everything. Variable steam control power lets you control the SC5’s output, so you can tackle more delicate jobs. It’s the VapoHydro that really grabs attention: this mode mixes water with steam, giving a kind of pressure-washer action. Karcher provides accessories for almost every job. There’s an Easyfix floor mopping head complete with washable microfibre cloths and a carpet glider. A large square brush gives you power for tough cleaning. And, a detail nozzle which takes a small round brush, small detail brush and power nozzle. In fact, the only thing missing is a window cleaning tool. On all surfaces from hard floors and carpets, to tiles and window sills, the SC5 proved itself to be a powerful performer, shifting stubborn dirt. And, it can do it at speed; in fact, we’ve never seen a steam cleaner that can clean a hard floor so quickly. For all-round cleaning ability, the Karcher SC5 easyFix Premium Steam Cleaner is the ultimate choice. Steam cleaner type: Cylinder, Dimensions: 439 x 301 x 305mm, Accessories: Floor cleaning kit, EasyFix + extension tube (2 × 0.5 m), hand nozzle, detail nozzle, round brush (small), microfibre cover for manual nozzle, Water tank: 1.5-litres, Steam pressure: 4.2bar Read our full Karcher SC5 easyFix Premium Steam Cleaner review 2. Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E Our favourite budget steam cleaner The Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E is a fantastic time saver, vacuuming and cleaning at the same time. We loved the original, and now the 1977E model has had a small update and now comes in a fetching blue colour. As a standalone steam cleaner or a standalone vacuum cleaner, this model won’t win awards; yet, the combination of the two features produces some powerful cleaning results. With a 400W bagless vacuum cleaner and 1100W steam heater, small particles are sucked up before the microfibre pad steams the floor and picks up stains. For well-trodden areas in your home with hard floors, the Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E can effectively halve your cleaning time. Bissell recommends three passes for dirty area and that worked well, picking up dust and removing stains. The downside of the system is that it’s not very flexible, and it’s neither a good vacuum or a flexible and powerful steam cleaner. Still, it’s the combination of parts that is important, and the Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E delivers on hard floor cleaning. Steam cleaner type: Steam mop and vacuum, Dimensions: 439 x 301 x 305mm, Accessories: Floor head (carpet and hard floors), Water tank: 380ml Read our full Bissell Vac & Steam 1977E review 3. Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop Sets a new standard for steam mops If you’re looking for a steam floor mop to quickly clean up hard floors, the Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop could well be the model for you. This well-priced steam mop is focussed on floor cleaning, shipping with a double-sided mopping pad that clips to the bottom of the mop. It’s a huge mop, making short work of floors, as you can clean large areas with a single swipe. Cleverly, the Klik n’ Flip head can flip over partway through a clean, giving you the clean side of the pad to keep cleaning with, without introducing a lengthy changeover. Cleaning performance was excellent, with the Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop tidying up mud on a tiled floor with ease, and picking up everyday kitchen stains: the steam blast function is particularly useful for cleaning up tougher stains. Easy to use, easy to move and brilliantly priced, the Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop is the best steam mop that we have ever tested. If you’ve got lots of hard floors, this is a great model to buy. Steam cleaner type: Steam mop, Dimensions: 1190 x 110 x 100mm, Accessories: Floor head, Water tank: 330ml Read our full Shark Klik n’ Flip S6003UK Steam Mop review 4. Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner A versatile cylinder steam cleaner for all situations Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner Looking more like the type of product that you might find in the Apple store, the cuboid Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner is the neatest steam cleaner that we’ve reviewed. Fortunately, beyond its shiny white exterior, this is also an excellent cylinder steam cleaner that ships with all the accessories you need to tackle a range of jobs around the home. It’s a touch tricky to fill up the water tank, although at 1.6-litres you shouldn’t have to fill it too often. Dupray says that this tank is enough to see you through 50 minutes of cleaning, which is enough to tackle a very tough job or for cleaning a larger area, such as a floor, more regularly. Most importantly, this steam cleaner did an excellent job in all of our tests: it quickly cleaned floors, removed tomato paste from a kitchen counter, brought grouting back to its best, removed limescale from a shower screen and made an oven look close to new. The cleaner did all of this without leaving surfaces too wet at the end. Available for a great price, the Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner is a great choice if you need a tool for all types of job, from mopping to detail work on tiles. Slow warm-up times and the need to wait 20 minutes between refilling are the only real downsides, but they’re easy to forgive on such a quality product. Steam cleaner type: Cylinder steam cleaner, Dimensions: 260 x 260 x 230mm, 4kg, Accessories: Floor head with three microfibre pads, manual nozzle with microfibre cover, detail and squeegee nozzle, brass bristle brush and five small brushes, two extension tubes and microfibre cloth and fragrance disc, Water tank: 1.6-litres Read our full Dupray Neat Steam Cleaner review 5. Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 A powerful steam mop and handheld cleaner all in one Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 hero If you want a steam cleaner that can do everything, the Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 is a great choice. It looks and acts like a steam mop, and it is: you get two microfibre cloths, a lift-out brush, and there’s a carpet slider, so you can tackle everything from hard floors to carpets with ease. Cleaning performance was very good on hard floors and, use the cleaner on minimum steam, and your floors come out quite dry. The trick with this cleaner is that you can lift-out the handheld section and use the selection of tools for detail cleaning, such as for grout, windows and ovens. You get a lot of steam pressure on maximum (although you get a lot of water run off), and can tackle most jobs. The minor issue is that the steam cleaner goes through cycles, so you get a burst of steam for a few minutes and then the system has to refresh. It’s also a little fiddly to hold the handheld unit’s trigger in, so longer jobs can be fatiguing. However, as a maintenance cleaner, preventing the build of stains and mould, this steam cleaner excels. Overall, you can get cleaners for bigger jobs on this list, but if you’re after a well-priced mop that can turn its hand to smaller jobs, the Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 is a great choice. Steam cleaner type: Steam mop and handheld, Dimensions: 1170 x 305 x 176mm, Weight: 3.5kg, Accessories: Mopping pad, carpet slider, triangular brush, large metal brush, small metal brush, round brush, curved nozzle, conical tool, hose, window squeegee, small cloth, Water tank: 0.35-litres, Steam pressure: Not disclosed Read our full Hoover Steam Capsule 2in1 6. Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop A versatile and well-priced steam mop and handheld all-in-one Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop Although the Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop is primarily a steam mop, it can be turned into a hand-held model for tackling some smaller jobs – no bad considering the budget price. The price is slightly reflected in the build quality, with this model feeling a touch cheap, and a little flimsy as a mop, but it does a decent all-round job. Primarily, the Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop will be used for cleaning floors, and we found that this model tackled tiled floors and laminate flooring well, although it left them a bit damp with some watermarks that we had to remove with a clean cloth at the end. This was a quick job and we can forgive this minor issue at this price. In handheld mode, you get a whole range of accessories, too for tackling everything from grout to windows. In testing, we found that grout was brought back to its best, and the Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop cleaned up a sofa, but it struggled to remove stains from a carpet. The cleaner also struggled to remove burnt-in oils from an oven. There are bigger and better steam cleaners, but nothing else really at this price. If you’re on a tight budget or just want something for occasional use, this is a great choice. Steam cleaner type: Steam mop and handheld, Dimensions: 11150 x 250 x 310mm, 2.3kg Accessories: Floorhead and upholstery pads, carpet glider, window/upholstery and scraper tools, detail and jet nozzles, crevice and round brushes, Water tank: 350ml Read our full Russell Hobbs Neptune Multifunction Steam Mop 7. Hoover Steam Express A small and cheap steam cleaner for spot cleaning If you don’t have large areas to clean and just need a steam cleaner for close-up jobs, the small and well priced Hoover Steam Express could be for you. Little larger than a water sprayer, this handheld tool comes with all of the accessories to clean up smaller areas in your home. You even get an extension hose, which makes it a bit easier to get into gaps or reach up higher. Testing around the home, with the accessories, we managed to clean up limescale around a tap, clean grease off of an oven rack, get marks off a chair and even clean a shower screen. There’s plenty of steam from this model: in fact, sometimes the shot of steam is a bit too powerful and objects can be left quite wet. When we cleaned our shower screen we had to be careful not to drip hot water onto ourselves. With lots of accessories and its low price, the Hoover Steam Express is a great choice if you don’t need to tackle bigger jobs; if you do, then look elsewhere on this list for a cleaner that can also manage hard floors. Steam cleaner type: Handheld, Dimensions: 260 x 220 x 120mm, 1.6kg Accessories: Crevice, detail and scraper tools, 80cm hose, metal and round brushes, window/upholstery tool with textile pad, Water tank: 400ml Read our full Hoover Steam Express review How to buy the right steam cleaner for you Which steam cleaner you should buy will largely depend on what you want to use your cleaner for. This quick guide should help you decide. Buy a steam mop if you just want to clean floors. They’re best for hard floors, but some are useful for freshening up carpets and lifting stains, too. They’re generally cheaper than 2-in-1 steam mops, which can switch into a handheld mode for other tasks. Buy a 2-in-1 steam mop if you want to clean floors and other surfaces. These more versatile steam mops can be used as handhelds as well, and they normally come with a selection of tools suited to different jobs. This means you can tackle the kitchen tops, bathroom tiles, curtains and plenty more besides – all with one handy cleaner. Buy a cylinder steam cleaner if you find upright steam mops too heavy. While some of the large cylinder steam cleaners are heavier overall, the fact that they’re on wheels means they’re easier to lug about. Most do all the same things a 2-in-1 steam mop will do, while very compact models exist that you can carry on your shoulder. The other key difference is that cylinder steam cleaners take longer to get ready – normally a few minutes – but the advantages are longer running times and less filling up. Some can even be topped up as you clean, so you don’t have to turn off the cleaner to keep going. Should you use detergent with a steam cleaner? Steam cleaners don’t have to use detergent, and use clean water and steam alone to remove stains. This makes them more gently cleaners in some regards, as you don’t have to use harsh chemicals to remove stubborn stains. That’s not to say that you shouldn’t use chemicals in the normal way. For example, for cleaning floors and surfaces, using traditional detergent and disinfectant makes sense, although you can then use a steam cleaner afterwards for dealing with some stains. Likewise, you should still clean with cleaning products for the deepest clean, letting the steam cleaner handle deeper jobs. Is tank size important? The larger the tank of water you have, the longer the steam cleaner can keep cleaning. This is more important on some models than other. Many models have a refillable water tank that you can remove and top up when you like. These ones heat water when its removed from a tank, effectively giving you continuous cleaning. For these models, the size of the tank isn’t so important, as you can get water when you need it. If you have a cleaner with a built-in tank where all of the water is heated at the same time, you have to have a cool-down time (up to 20 minutes or so) before you can refill and use them again. For these models, it’s important to have a running time that will last for the length of job you have, so that you don’t have to pause in the middle of cleaning. What accessories do I need? Steam cleaners, bar standalone steam mops, will come with a variety of attachments for different jobs. Largely, these are there to make specific tasks easier. Each accessory works by changing how steam is directed, such as a thin nozzle to help push steam towards tile grouting, or by providing a tool to help clean, such as a wire brush for cleaning an oven. Tools can do both, such as an upholstery brush that directs steam over a wider area and gives you a brush to agitate the upholstery and loosen dirt. When you buy a steam cleaner you should think about the jobs you want to do and make sure that your chosen model has the right accessories. Can you use a steam cleaner on all surfaces? Steam is generally safe to use on most surfaces but there are some exceptions to this. As you’re using water, using a steam cleaner on an unsealed surface isn’t recommended. And, surfaces that may react badly to a lot of water, such as solid wood flooring, may not be suitable, as you could get swelling. The situation is worse if you apply steam directly to the surface but also applies with steam mops. Although mop heads will absorb most of the heat of the steam, they can still get very wet, which is no good for many surfaces. For dealing with hard floors, we recommend that you buy one of our best hard floor cleaners, instead. Can a steam cleaner kill bed bugs? Steam is an effective way to kill bed bugs and their eggs, thanks to the high temperatures proving lethal. If you’re worried about an infestation, then steam cleaning soft furnishings can help. Make sure that you use the upholstery attachment and/or mattress accessory to clean. You should move slowly over the area, taking at least 30 seconds before moving the steam head in order to deliver a killing dose of steam. Make sure that you cover all areas, and press the steam head into crevices and around the bed; for mattresses, cover the sides and underneath, too. Can a steam cleaner kill coronavirus? Karcher commissioned research that showed that enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, can be killed by high temperatures. Spot cleaning for 30 seconds at maximum steam level was enough to kill the virus. This shows that cleaning close-up is required to be effective, so cleaning with a burst of steam can be a good secondary way of disinfecting surfaces, although cleaning with detergent should always be done. Steam can be good on surfaces that are otherwise hard to clean, such as curtains and upholstery. Using a steam mop is slightly different, as the microfibre cloth absorbs some heat. Steam mops will remove dirt, bacteria and viruses, but the pad should be cleaned at a high temperature in a washing machine to disinfect it after use. In short, then, a steam cleaner can help disinfect surfaces but should be used as an additional tool after traditional cleaning.

Tuesday, October 6, 2020

How to keep your floors sparkling clean


It’s the final chore on your long cleaning list: you’ve dusted, tidied, vacuumed and polished, and all that remains is to make the floor sparkle.

If only it were that simple!

Not all floors need the same treatment, and if you get it wrong, you could be doing more harm than good. From laminate to carpet, here's everything you need to know to keep your floors gleaming.

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How do I keep my floors clean for longer?

We all know how quickly dirt, dust and grime builds up. Prevention is better than cure. Use doormats at entrances, take your shoes off and ask guests to do likewise, and groom pets regularly and always outdoors. Immediately wipe up any spills, especially on porous surfaces like marble. Other than that? Sadly, you've simply got to keep cleaning!

What is the best way to clean floors?

Carefully consider the surface you are cleaning, before you do any damage. Once you know what material you are dealing with, you can follow our handy guide below:

Laminate

Vacuum, dust or wipe with a lightly dampened mop – never use soap-based detergents, as they can leave a dull film on the floor, and avoid over-wetting. Don’t use wax polish, either: it will make the floor too slippery.

To remove marks and stains, use a dilute solution of water and vinegar. Never be tempted to use abrasive cleaners, such as nylon scouring pads or steel wool, as they can scratch laminate.

Stubborn marks, such as shoe polish, can be removed with nail polish remover containing acetone, or other mild solvents. Trusty old WD-40 is also effective.

To protect the floor, put felt pads underneath furniture legs and drip trays under plant pots.

GHI TIP: Vacuum or sweep all types of hard floors regularly to prevent the surface being scratched by grit, and remove shoes at the front door.

Pattanaphong Khuankaew / EyeEmGetty Images

Ceramic and quarry tiles

Hurrah, these need minimal maintenance! Sweep and wash with a mild detergent solution, before rinsing with clean water. Never use wax polish – the tiles will become slippery.

You could also try a steam cleaner. "Steam cleaners are a quick and effective option for cleaning sealed floors and tiles, and they only need water to get the job done," says Katie Mortram, Head of Appliance Testing at the GHI.z

Terracotta tiles

For the first year after installation, terracotta tiles mature. Most floorsuppliers stock a special cleaner, sealant and polish, so use recommended products from yours.

Vinyl

Sweep with a soft brush or vacuum, then wipe with a damp mop, using a mild detergent. Rinse thoroughly after wiping. To remove scuff marks, use a cloth dipped in neat washing-up liquid or white spirit, then rinse off.

Witthaya PrasongsinGetty Images

Wood

Sealed floors need only to be swept and damp-mopped. Don't use too much water or the wood could swell and split.

Unsealed and waxed floors should be swept regularly and occasionally repolished. Use wax sparingly, as any excess will leave a tacky residue and attract dirt, and buff well. Should worn patches appear on the surface, apply a non-slip floor polish.

On a waxed floor, polish and dirt builds up over time. The only way to clean it is to remove the wax and start again. Use a cloth moistened with white spirit. Let it soak in, and as the wax and dirt begin to dissolve, wipe it away with crumpled newspaper. Scrub obstinate parts by hand, or with abrasive pads on a floor polisher. Once all of the polish has been removed, damp-mop with clean water. Leave it to dry completely before applying new polish, one small section at a time.

For protecting your wooden or parquet flooring, we recommend Dr Beckmann Hardwood & Parquet Floor Cleaner. It nourished our boards and brought slightly faded ones back to life.

GHI TIP: Never varnish a waxed floor – it won't dry!

Cork

Wipe factory-sealed cork tiles with a damp mop, using a washing-up liquid solution. For an extra layer of protection, especially in high-traffic areas like the bathroom and kitchen, apply an acrylic or polyurethane sealant.

Never over-wet cork floors, and take care not to damage its seal or protective coatings by dragging appliances or furniture across them.

GHI TIP: Scuff marks on your skirting boards? Squirt them with WD-40 and wipe them away with a soft cloth.

​Linoleum

Sweep or vacuum to remove grit and dust. Clean with a mop or cloth dampened with a floor cleaner or detergent solution. Use water sparingly. Rinse after washing.

Stubborn marks can be removed by rubbing lightly with a dampened fine nylon pad.

Stone

Stone is susceptible to staining, so it should always be protected with a resin sealant. To clean sealed stone, vacuum it thoroughly, before mopping with a mild detergent solution.

To remove grease or oil, use a proprietary spot-treatment stain remover for stone.

Carpet

If you own a carpet cleaning machine, this is the best way to clean your floor. If not, you can still do a good job without one.

Start by spot-treating any stains. We like the Dr Beckmann Carpet Stain Remover for removing stains. Simply use it according to the manufacturer's instructions, but remember that it's always best to target stains quickly. ‘The longer stains are left to dry into fabric, the harder they will be to remove,’ says Verity Mann, Head of Testing at the GHI.

Next, you'll want to tackle the carpet with your vacuum. Once you've been over it once, use your vacuum accessories to clean hard-to-reach areas. Use the crevice tool to vacuum the edges of your carpet and under radiators - this will help to prevent black lines forming around the skirting board. If your carpet is particularly thick, use the turbo brush (or power brush) to collect stubborn dirt and pet hairs.

GHI TIP: Remove any annoying indents and impression marks left by furniture by rubbing an ice cube over the affected area

The United States Mission to Nigeria has celebrated Dr Onyema Ogbuagu, for his role in the development of a COVID-19 vaccine.

The United States Mission to Nigeria has celebrated Dr Onyema Ogbuagu, for his role in the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. . Ogbuagbu, wh...